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Below are excerpts from legal articles on environmental laws and mining laws published in Volume 2 (2012) of Environmental and Forest Law Times. The full contents of the same are reported in the volume which is available in the market. For price details and to place orders please contact:

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The scale of illegal mining has been increasing considerably in India from the last several years. The instances of illegal mining have been reported from the different States, and in spite of several Court orders, an effective check could not be created on the illegal mining. The author opines that illegal mining is detrimental to the country not only in monetary terms, but it has tremendous implications for the workers and nearby population in terms of health hazards. In illegal mining operation no environmental regulations are followed, and no safety measures are taken to save the workers from the exposure of mines. Illegal mining operations have reduced the forest coverage and have spoiled the fertility of agricultural land. The author suggests that immediate actions must be taken by the State Government to curb mining, and the Central Government must play the role of a watchdog over the State Governments. In the opinion of author a regulatory framework to curb illegal mining can only succeed, when there is co-ordination and co-operation among the different authorities of the Government……….

(Full Article available in Volume 2 (2012) of Environmental and Forest Law Times)


Lecturer, Faculty of Law,
University of Allahabad, Allahabad (U.P.)

Sustainable development came to be defined in the Beundtland Report ‘Our Common Future’ as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs. During two decades from Stockholm to Rio, ‘Sustainable development has come to be accepted as a viable concern to eradicate poverty and improve the quality of human life without living within the carrying capacity of the supporting ecosystems.

‘The Caring for the Earth’ document defines sustainability as ‘a characteristic or state that can be maintained indefinitely, whereas development is defined as ‘the necessary capacity to meet human needs and improve the quality of human life’. This means that sustainable development would imply improving the quality of human life within the carrying capacity of supporting ecosystems.


The World Commission on Environment and Development published the Brundtland Report calling for a new approach articulated as ‘sustainable development’, and a turning point leading to the convening of the UNCED was reached .

After the Stockholm Conference, the United Nation’s Commission on Environment and Development studied the causes for environmental degradation and how development must be organized without further damaging the environment. This report coined the term ‘sustainable development’. The report spoke in terms of equity for the present and future generational equity.

The Rio Conference in 1992 and UNCED made sustainable development a legal and executable principle. The concept of sustainable development presents humanity with an exceptional opportunity to define how we can build markets and create jobs, and reduce the tensions over resources that often lead to violence. COMMISSION ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

The UN Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) was established to serve as a permanent forum through which Governments could review progress towards the goals of sustainable development and integrate economical and environmental decision making. The CSD review reports from Governments and international organizations for their efforts to discuss financial and technical issues and recommend further action to promote sustainable development………………….

(Full Article available in Volume 2 (2012) of Environmental and Forest Law Times)




Development of environmental jurisprudence at international level can be traced to the 2nd half of the nineteenth century. The subject became recognizable in mid 18th century, early attempts to develop international rules focused on conservation of wildlife (fisheries birds and seals).

Early international legal development includes research efforts of scientists including work of-Count Buffons which contrasted the appearance of inhabited life with uninhabited life; studies by Fabre & Surrel of flooding erosion and diversion of water sources brought about by deforestation in Alps for instance : From the work of Bossingault-

“In the island of Ascension there was an excellent spring situated at the foot of the mountain originally covered with wood; the spring became scanty and dried-up after the trees covered by forest had been felled. The loss of the spring was rightly ascribed to the cutting down of the timber. The mountain was therefore planted anew. A few years afterwards the spring reappeared by degrees, and flowed with its former abundance” .

The concern for Flora and Fauna led to the adoption of early environmental legislation at the international level like- Convention to conserve oyster by prohibiting fishing , North fisheries (Over Fishing Convention), 1882 , Convention to protect birds 1902 . Environmental jurisprudence was limited extent to the protection of rivers & seas.

The second phase began with creation of United Nations Organisation and its specialised agencies in 1945. In this phase range of environmental concern addressed by international regulatory activity, increased including focus on the causes of pollution resulting from ultra-hazardous activities.

Basically the UN charter did not include any agendas & provisions on environment but, UN’s purposes include the achievement of international cooperation in solving international problems.

IPUN (International Union for Protection of Nature) was the first major international organisation established in 1948 for preservation of wildlife, natural environment, public knowledge, education, scientific research and legislation. Next was (UNCCUR) United Nations Conference on Conservation and Utilisation of Resources. Resolution convened in 1949 traces its origin in initiative to Franklin .D Roosvelt and Harry S. Truman. The resolution reflected an awareness of the need for international action to establish a balanced approach to the management and conservation of natural resources It also emphasised on importance of reconstruction of devastated areas.

Further, in this phase the major new development was attention given by UN General Assembly on nuclear tests and oil pollution which had far reaching implications, as 1955 UN General Assembly adopted for the first time a resolution on use and effect of atomic radiation . In 1955 only International Maritime Organisation was formed for prevention of oil pollution.

The development reflects that this phase is characterised by two features: international organisation both at regional and global level. This phase signals shift in emphasis away from the protection of flora and fauna towards international action for addressing products and process associated with industrial activity, and it aims at creation of awareness, public knowledge, education, environment assessment etc but it has no mandate to adopt any resolution hence it does not lay down any stringent standards………………

(Full Article available in Volume 2 (2012) of Environmental and Forest Law Times)


Lecturer, Faculty of Law,
University of Allahabad,
Allahabad (U.P.)

The path of environmental law has come to a cliff called climate change, and there is no turning around. As climate change policy dialogue emerged in the 1990s, however, the perceived urgency of attention to mitigation strategies designed to regulate sources of greenhouse gas emissions quickly snuffed out meaningful progress on the formulation of adaptation strategies designed to respond to the effects of climate change on humans and the environment. Only recently has this “adaptation deficit” become a concern, now actively included in climate change policy debate. Previously treating talk of adaptation as taboo, the climate change policy of the world has begrudgingly accepted it into the fold as the reality of failed efforts to achieve global mitigation policy has combined with the scientific evidence that committed warming will continue the trend of climate change well into the future regardless of mitigation policy success.

Global change is altering this vision by causing states to realize that they are locked together in sharing the use of a common global environment. While human activities have always contributed to environmental change, it is only within the last half of this century that their effects have become global and serious, and in many cases irreversible. This has led to a growing awareness that the interests of humankind must constrain the interests of individual states. Moreover, actors other than states have become essential to managing global environmental change. These developments are leading to a fundamental shift in the paradigm of international law that is evolving in the international environmental field. This article examines some of the ways in which international environmental law is responding to global environmental change and suggests new directions for the field.

Conditions favoring "transparency," "glasnost," and public access to information have greatly improved since 1972, both nationally and internationally, and the end of the Cold War removes social constraints from broad application of new technologies that can improve availability of information useful for reducing global risk and putting development on a sustainable basis. However, the kinds of information sought for the goals to be set in 1992 will be challenging, especially since the parallel issues of environment and development are now formally joined for the first time, and we are forced to recognize links between local development action and global environmental change; even national or local actions taken in the name of "development" - to improve the quality of life for present generations or to satisfy consumption demands of the affluent - can pose risks of global as well as local impacts.

Emerging Issue On Prevention And Mitigation For Environmental Harm:-

Traditional norms, principles, and rules of international environmental law, as typically shown in the Tran frontier pollution context, centre mainly on how to reconcile the conflicting interests of the concerned states in order to reach an equitable solution. Presumptions inherent in traditional international environmental law are that the concerned states are identifiable and geographically adjacent (i.e., "acting" and "affected" states, upstream and downstream states, etc.); that the effect of pollution is of limited geographical expansion; that it is relatively easy to identify causation between polluting states and victim states; and that damage can be calculated and compensated.

Prevention and mitigation are two tools used for the protection of the environment. The principle of prevention purports to prevent specific harms from arising, e.g., alteration of the environment, damage to people or the environment, interference with legitimate and legal uses of the environment, and overload of the assimilative capacity of the environment.1 The principle of mitigation, on the other hand, purports to minimize the occurrence of such specific harms. Principles of prevention and mitigation work together in the international regulation of pollution or environmental harm. Prevention is less costly than reparation both in economic and social terms because of the intrinsic nature of pollution or environmental harm - i.e., their long-lasting and irreversible detrimental effects upon people and the environment. Consequently, more importance has been given in international environmental law to the principles of prevention and mitigation than to reparation. While the principle of liability does have a deterrent effect on environmental harm, preventive and mitigating measures have an even more direct and effective deterrent effect.

Substantive principles and rules have been developed in the process of treaty-making on marine pollution, pollution of international rivers and lakes, atmospheric pollution, and the protection and conservation of fauna and flora. The international regulation of these problems has placed emphasis upon prevention rather than upon ex post facto remedies. Common legal techniques that are used include the identification of regulated activities and pollutants, the demarcation of the extent of jurisdiction, and the establishment of a regulating method, e.g., total prohibitions or restrictions on the production, trade, consumption, disposal, or emission of certain substances or pollutants, and standard-setting for those purposes ……………………………

(Full Article available in Volume 2 (2012) of Environmental and Forest Law Times)


‘Till now man has been up against Nature; from now on he will be up against his own nature.’
—Dennis Gabor

A. Public Interest Litigation- Aims and Objectives explained

What does the concept of ‘public interest litigation’ mean? What does it aim at? What is the role judges have to play in such litigation? What are the circumstances which force are for such a wider jurisdiction without the existence of any such mechanism of accountability? Since Independence, India was poised with the problem of socio- economic justice and the imposition of emergency in 1975 left a political turmoil. Post- Emergency period witnessed a political change as the ruling congress party was electorally removed from office. The new party in power was feeling its way and opposition parties were finding new roles. Many rural Indians were resisting the feudal arrangements that dominated their lives as many of those in more urban settings sought to organize themselves to better their lot. The very responsibilities and authority of the State were in question. The Court stepped into this political void and redefined the lines between governmental authority and citizens' rights. Led by then Justice P.N. Bhagwati and Justice V. R. Krishna Iyer, the Supreme Court ruled that some of the accepted standards of justiciability, locus standi among them, would be waived under certain circumstances. Without that waiver, it would be impossible, they determined, for most Indians to ever address the Court to enforce their rights, and that waiver, in turn, has permitted the development of extensive public interest litigation (PIL). Hence, in a public interest litigation there is no such determination of individual’s rights rather Supreme Court justified this judicial innovation in need to fulfill the constitutional goal of establishing an egalitarian society enshrined in its preamble, Part III and Part IV of its Constitution. The concept got its structural form in 1980’s and the judges of Supreme Court had been influenced widely by the philosophy of “Social Justice Approach” in administration of justice; rejecting the mechanical theory of interpretation and rule of locus standi. As observed by Justice P. N. Bhagwati –

“A judge is not a mimic. Greatness of the bench is in creativity. The process of judging is a phase of never ending movement and something more is expected of a judge than mere initiative reproduction, lifeless repetition of a mechanical routine. It is for this reason that when a law comes before a judge, he has to interest it with meaning and content.”

Having a glimpse of judgments from various constitutional courts of India, it appears that entirely a new “Activist Environmental Jurisprudence” has been evolved by the judicial system. It is therefore important that environmental law is read critically and inherent limitations of relying on law are alone acknowledged. In the enforcement of these laws, the Indian judiciary had played a seminal role and Public Interest Litigation had served as a convenient tool to evolve a new environmental Jurisprudence.

The judicial innovations and crusade of developing a new environmental jurisprudence started with the Oleum leak gas where Justice P.N. Bhagawati observed-

“We have to evolve new principles and lay down new norms which will adequately deal with new problems which arise in a highly industrialized economy. We cannot allow our judicial thinking to be constricted by reference to the law as it prevails in England or any other foreign countries. Law cannot afford to remain static. As new situations arise the law has to be evolved in order to meet the challenge of such new situations. We are certainly prepared to receive light from whatever source it comes but we have to build up our own jurisprudence.” ………………………..

(Full Article available in Volume 2 (2012) of Environmental and Forest Law Times)




“The environment is every thing that is not me.” The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the key principles of environmental law and the role of judiciary in imparting environmental justice in India and to outline how these principles have been embodied into human life. Due to the broad scope of the topic, this paper is not intended to be a comprehensive review of every law that addresses environmental justice, rather, it highlights the fact that there is a growing recognition of the importance of the principles of environmental justice at all levels of government and that governments continue to wrestle with the problem that how those principles are implemented. India having the second largest population in the world and having credit of being one of the ten biggest industrialized nations is also facing the problem of environmental justice. Though India has to its credit many legislations but there has been a very weak implementation culture. Perhaps it is one of the reasons that Indian judiciary led by Supreme Court of India has shown its activism and over activism to protect India's environment. The objective of the present study is to study the status of Indian Environmental Law. In this connection the constitutional provisions, judicial decisions and relevant provisions of pollution control legislations are examined. The present paper therefore is to suggest the improvements and the means to strengthen the status of Indian Environmental Law so that it can become an effective tool for environmental protection. Therefore, action must be taken against a person by whose action or omission the right to a clean and healthy environment is threatened.


The environment has assumed an important place in recent years. Some of the general or basic principles of environment have been incorporated into constitutions of developing countries like the right to access to justice and the individual’s right to a clean and healthy environment and his/her duty to protect and defend environment. Constitution of India has two express provisions regarding the protection of environment, namely article 48–A and 51–A (g). Under Article 48–A direction has been given to the Central and State Governments to take necessary steps for the protection of environment and the Apex Court of India held that Article 48–A is not only a simple direction to the government but is a responsibility upon the government to protect the environment. Under Article 51–A (g) there is a duty to protect and improve the natural environment including forest, lakes, rivers and wild life. It is commendable that our Constitution is the first Constitution of the World that contains express provisions regarding the protection of environment. It was the Supreme Court which brought the cause of environment protection at the central stage of our polity when it declared it a fundamental right to a clean environment under Article 21. In Kishor Namdeorao Gathadi v. Municipal Corporation, Aurangabad and others, the Court held that state shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country as art. 51-a(g) proclaims it to be the fundamental duty of every citizen of India.

The 42nd amendment to the Constitution was brought about in the year 1974 which makes it the responsibility of the State Government to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country. Under Fundamental Duties, there is a fundamental duty of every citizen to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures. As conferred by Article 246 (1), while the Union is supreme to make any law over the subjects enumerated in List I, the States, under Article 246 (3), enjoy competence to legislate on the entries contained in List II, and both the Union and the States under Article 246 (2) have concurrent jurisdiction on entries contained in List III. Though we had Water Act, 1974 and Air Act, 1981 but we had to face one of the worst industrial disaster at Bhopal in the year 1984. Post Bhopal scenario witnessed hectic legislative efforts as our parliament has passed, E.P. Act, 1986, National Environment Tribunal Act, 1995 and National Environment Appellate Authority Act, 1997. Several Rules and Notifications have been framed under these legislations. ROLE OF JUDICIARY IN IMPARTING ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE:

The Judiciary has come up with the “judge-driven implementation” of environmental administration in India. It has isolated specific environmental law principles based on interpretation of Indian Statutes and Constitution. Public Interest Litigations (PIL) which is the result of the relaxation of the locus standi rules by the judiciary, is the characteristic feature of the environmental justice in India. Disputes relating to environment are treated as cases related to violation of fundamental rights, rather than claims under law of torts. In case of matters relating to environment one can directly approach the Supreme Court and High Courts under Article 32 and 226 of the Constitution of India. The orders of the Supreme Court and the High Courts cover a wide range of areas including air, water, solid waste, hazardous wastes, forests, mining activities, and architectural treasures. Policy statements of the government, which otherwise are not enforceable in Courts, have been used as aids by the Judges for interpreting environmental statutes and for spelling out obligations of the Government……………………….

(Full Article available in Volume 2 (2012) of Environmental and Forest Law Times)



“Climate Change is certainly the greatest environmental challenge facing humanity and may also be the greatest economic and political challenge. Forging global consensus on cooperative strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change is a formidable challenge… If we fail to act with urgency and forthrightness, global climate change will have dangerous effects on the world economy and security.”

(Timothy E. Wirth, The Challenge of building consensus beyond the scientific community, UN Chronicle, No 2, 2007, p. 11.)

Climate change and global warming are the greatest threats to the international community at present. The 1992 Rio Earth Summit was a watershed in human history in that it recognised that economic growth and sustainable development go hand in hand. According to the World Summit for Social Development, 2002, the three pillars of sustainable development that came to be recognised and were dependent upon each other are economic growth, social development and environmental protection. For globalisation to become sustainable, it is highly necessary for it to become equitable. One of the major goals of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals was protection of environment.

Climate change is a burning issue today. The international laws that are used to deal with these problems are often referred to as the Climate change regime. The Untied Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was adopted at the 1992 Rio Earth Summit and became effective in 1994. 189 countries signed at this Convention whose main aim was reduction of greenhouse gases and imposing liabilities upon the developed countries since they are the main contributors of greenhouse gases. The Kyoto Protocol was born out of this Framework Convention in December, 1997. 175 countries signed the Kyoto Protocol. According to the National Communication Report of India to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the national eco systems and socio-economic systems in India can be affected by climate change.

Global warming - to which industrial countries have heavily contributed - is a wake up call not just to the threat of climate change, but more importantly to the current deficiency in our political and social institutions and values. About 99 per cent of climate change casualties take place in the developing world. The poor in these countries are at a higher risk to future climate change, given their heavy dependence on agriculture, strong reliance on eco-system services, rapid growth and concentration of population and relatively poor health service. Climate change, if left unchecked, will worsen food insecurity. Climate change also threatens poverty reduction because poor people depend directly on endangered eco system and their services for their well-being………………………

(Full Article available in Volume 2 (2012) of Environmental and Forest Law Times)


4th Year, BBA.LLB (Hons.) National law University, Odisha


India is the biggest democracy in the world having seventh largest geographical area and a steadily growing nation of over one hundred and three million people. India is endowed with significant mineral resources, which include fossil fuels, ferrous and non-ferrous ores and industrial minerals. Even the coastal tracts contain beach sand rich in rare earth and heavy minerals. These non-renewable resources are finite. Many of these resources are located in environmentally sensitive areas. Our best iron ore and bauxite deposits in eastern, central and southern India are located in forests.

Mining is the process of extracting minerals from the earth. Minerals obtained from the surface of the earth include coal, bauxite, copper, gold, diamonds, and so on. The earth’s surface provides all the material that cannot be agriculturally grown or created artificially. There is a huge element of risk involved in mining, both for mineworkers and for the environment. Studies indicate that in the past, one out of every thousand mine workers died due to the adverse effects of mining activities. It focuses on the fact that, although the mining industry is contributing to world economy, it is causing environmental pollution, which is affecting the earth’s ecosystem. The historical and ongoing conflict between mining mineral reserves and conserving environmental resources will continue to exist even in future as India's forests, mineral bearing areas, major river watersheds, tribal habitat regions and most backward regions overlap significantly. The Indian mining sector has been facing severe criticism on several issues relating to its performance vis-a-vis sustainable development…………………

(Full Article available in Volume 2 (2012) of Environmental and Forest Law Times)


2nd Year (IVth Sem) Hidayatullah National Law University
Raipur, Chhattisgarh


The past five decades have witnessed the difficult problems encountered in providing health care services to our poor people, the majority of whom live in more than half-a-million villages and in the proliferating slums of our cities. Charitable and voluntary organizations since time immemorial have been contributing significantly towards the health care of the community. With the passage of time, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have equipped themselves adequately and come up enthusiastically in providing services like relief to the blind, the disabled and disadvantaged and helping the government in mother and child health care, including family planning programmes. As a result, all concerned have realized the potential of NGOs and their considerable merit compared to the public/private health sectors because of their staff’s motivation, dedication and sympathy for the deprived sections of our society and their personalized approach towards the solution of problems. The National Population Policy (NPP) 2000 and National Health Policy (NHP) 2002, states that there should be greater involvement of NGOs in the implementation of different health and family welfare programmes in the country. In recognition of the crucial role played by them, Government of India started granting financial aid to NGOs for various schemes. The important role played by the various national and regional level NGOs is briefly documented in this article.

This aims at developing civic and environmental consciousness among the public. Organisation of civic amenities and sanitary facilities on a self- help basis, enactment of suitable legislation for the betterment of civic standards, environmental protection is some means by which a cleaner and healthier environment can be achieved.


The NGO aims at developing civic and environmental consciousness among the public. The environmental protection is some means by which a cleaner and healthier environment can be achieved. NGOs also include the protection and preservation of nature, wildlife, historical and heritage monuments.

Basically the power to work for the cause of environment protection is given itself in the Constitution of India.

Provisions for Environmental protection in the Constitution India were made in India in 1976 through 42nd amendment which state as follows:

(i) Article 48-A : The state shall endear to protect and improve the natural environment and safeguard the forest and wildlife in the country.
(ii) Article 51-A (g) provides that : it shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, river and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures.

Hence through these provisions which are imbibed in constitution, NGOs are empowered to work for the protection of environment. They can take any steps within the limitations for the upliftment of the standard of environment. They can through demonstrations; public awareness and now through PILs save the environment from the degradation.



This includes both municipal solid waste and bio-medical wastes. Civic Exnoras play a major role in assisting the Municipal Corporation in the collection of garbage from individual households and the deposition of the same in secondary collection points by appointing street beautifiers in the concerned areas. With its experience over the years, NGOs have realised that this was merely a relocation of waste rather than management of solid wastes.


NGOs have now started focusing efforts on the concept of Zero Waste Management, by which practically all wastes can be converted into wealth through recycling. NGOs are also addressing the problem of handling and disposal of bio- medical wastes, and are trying to find a solution beneficial to all concerned.


Inadequate sanitation facilities are a major problem to human health, especially so in the neglected low- income areas and slum settlements. NGOs concept of self- help is best displayed by the community sanitation improvement projects in these areas.


This program has a dual role - of creating environmental awareness amongst the student community and to develop each child's mind resources through various personality development programs. A teachers' manual and an activity book that have been brought out as a part of this program are designed in the `do-and learn' format and provide an easy understanding of the problems faced by us and at the same time kindles the mind to find remedial measures.


The NGOs in the country have been instrumental in planting trees for the purpose of beautification of roads, parks, playgrounds, burial grounds, etc., with the larger perspective of Environment protection.


With agricultural land shrinking rapidly and deforestation rates rocketing, urban agriculture is the need of the hour. NGOs have been propagating and training youth in setting up and maintaining vegetable roof gardens in household’s metros. The NGOs are closely working with the Horticulture and Agriculture Departments of various states on this project.


NGOs have propagated the system of rain harvesting in several residential areas in the city with the aim of exploiting one or another important water source, viz., and rainwater. Many cities suffer from perennial water problems every summer and therefore it is important that all avenues of water source be tapped. By using simple and inexpensive techniques the NGOs have arrived at a method to conserve a large part of the rain that we receive annually……………………………..

(Full Article available in Volume 2 (2012) of Environmental and Forest Law Times)


Ministry of State (Independent Charge)

Dear Colleagues,
• Rio +20 is a momentous event where we will celebrate 20 years of implementation of the goals of the first Earth Summit held in 1992.

• The Conference is important for us as it is a logical sequel to the Stockholm Conference of 1972 and Rio Conference of 1992. At the Stockholm conference our PM Mrs. Indira Gandhi was the only other head of government besides the host country PM to address the conference. Her address was truly seminal and is still regarded as one having set the template for the idea of sustainable development.
• India has always been a responsible country in the matter of protection of environment in general and implementing Rio Principles in particular. We have been pioneers in many respects in developing countries when it comes to environment. The good thing is that we have enjoyed full political consensus in this matter which gives strength to our policies and determination.
• At this Conference, we will have an opportunity to review how the commitments made at the first Earth Summit and the three conventions have been implemented.
• A declaration is likely to be made in Rio. A text is under discussion. It is titled ‘The Future We Want’. It deals with several ideas. The important sections which are currently under discussion are those relating to ‘Our Common Vision’, ‘Renewing Political Commitment’, “Green Economy’, Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development, and ‘Framework for action and follow-up’.
• Two of the themes of the Rio Conference that have generated some interest and difference in perceptions are those relating to ‘Green Economy’ and ‘Institutional Framework’. Besides, there is also an expectation that the issue of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) may be discussed as a deliverable of the Rio Conference under the ‘Framework of action and follow-up’………………………….

(Full Article available in Volume 2 (2012) of Environmental and Forest Law Times)

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